Click the links below to see the ALAMAU 2019 Committees
About the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ RightsDownload the Study Guide
The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights is located in Banjul, The Gambia. It is officially tasked with three clear functions: the protection of human and peoples’ rights, the promotion of human and peoples’ rights, and the interpretation of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Furthermore, it performs other tasks entrusted to it by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government. The Commission is therefore ideally suited to deal with the matter of refugee integration in Africa to ensure that the rights of refugees in this continent are protected.
Topic: Delivering Sustainable Refugee Integration in Africa
Conflicts in Africa have created a growing number of refugees who are compelled to seek asylum across the continent and elsewhere. It is clear that many suffer while crossing borders and thereafter fail to settle in a particular location. The growing number of refugees, coupled with the financial constraints of the host countries, have created serious complications in catering for this group of people. Those who settle accordingly find it challenging to access basic social services including employment, education, housing and health services. As such, refining and attempting to streamline integration policies in African states is critical in supporting the social and economic rights of refugees.
Certain African countries have made substantial progress in refugee integration. Uganda is a notable example in this regard: it currently hosts more than a million refugees and boasts one of the most progressive refugee policies in the world. Its approach embodies prima facie asylum, impartial acceptance across the border, provision of land to new entrant families, and freedom to movement and employment. This has resulted in a high number of refugees in rural areas involved in the labour sector, which in turn supports Uganda in coping with its financial burdens. This example contrasts the encampment policy in Kenya, which generally aims to bar refugees from crossing its borders on security grounds.
The African Commission on Human and People’s Rights will analyse the strategies employed in African countries to provide asylum to refugees in order to understand what needs to be replicated, strengthened and developed. Questions related to the financial difficulties of integrating refugees as well as the potential associated security concerns will be tackled in depth.
About the African Development Bank
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The African Development Bank (AfDB) is a committee of the African Union concerned with the social and economic development of African States. Its mission is to help reduce poverty, improve living conditions, and mobilize resources for the continent’s economic and social growth.
Topic: Building Transcontinental Transport Infrastructure For Economic Cooperation
African countries have made great strides in their modern transport networks, exemplified by the Gautrain; a high-speed train in South Africa, and the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya. Nevertheless, current transport systems that link countries in Africa are sub-standard. The African Union Agenda 2063 is ambitious in this regard; aiming for Africa to have one single railroad. While the amount of resources it would take to build this is enormous, the potential benefits are vast.
Mega-infrastructure projects such as the single railroad would help move major goods across the land mass, and unlock trade on an unprecedented scale. Moreover, it would help accommodate the growing population growth in Africa as it could support easier employment opportunities and enhance tourism. Landlocked countries could also make more profit on their goods, including offering the potential to Chad to export its goods through the port of Mombasa. Other transcontinental transport projects such as those focused on waterways can more efficiently enable inland countries to benefit from coastal countries. Additionally, these types of projects are critical in supporting other ongoing projects in the continent, such as the African Union Passport as well as the African Continental Free Trade Area agreement, by linking our economies to achieve our goals.
At ALAMAU 2019, this committee will deal with the complex financial and logistical questions related to this issue. It will ask questions related to how the cost would be divided, what countries the infrastructure would cross, how countries could contribute apart from money, and how we can ensure the security of goods.
About the African Energy Commission
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The African Energy Commission is a continental African structure with the objective of providing leadership in the development of Africa’s energy resources. It also aims to enhance energy security, generate rapid economic and social growth, protect the environment, eradicate poverty and improve the standard and quality of life of the African populations in sustainable ways.
Topic: Enhancing Clean Energy Generation for the African Continent
With rapid economic and population growth, Africa’s energy demands continue to grow exponentially. In order to keep up with the ever-rising demand for electricity, African governments have put billions of dollars into the energy sector in a bid to meet the rising demand. As a result, Africa has reduced its dependence on fossil fuels. As of 2012, hydropower constituted 32% of total power generation on the continent, which has contributed towards the diversification of Africa’s energy pool. In line with the African Union Agenda 2063, Africa has also made tremendous progress in relation to clean energy generation and a shift from fossil fuels to eco-friendly, renewable sources of energy. This is evident through the introduction of mega-energy projects such as the Gibe III dam in Ethiopia and the De Aar Solar Power Plant in South Africa, which have bolstered energy generation in the continent and demonstrated the vast potential for eco-friendly, cheap electricity as a stimulant for industrialisation.
Despite tremendous growth, the current energy generated through renewable sources represents less than 10 percent of potential generation capability for the continent. In order to achieve Agenda 2063, African countries will need to opt for renewable sources of energy. This requires a considerably higher initial capital injection, but is cheaper in the long run. Many African countries have been slow in adopting this change, however those that have continue to reap the benefits. This is exemplified by Kenya, which has had new energy policies that have led to increased investment in renewable sources of energy, namely geothermal that has boosted its energy generation. This has been reliable and has produced cheap electricity for industrialization of its economy.
Africa’s geothermal energy potential is at 14GW, Hydro and wind energy potential is at 100GW and solar energy potential is at 90GW. This presents the tremendous opportunity for Africa to support growing energy demands and provide the necessary cheap electricity needed for industrialization. Over the next decade however, Africa will need $70 billion in annual investment in order to realize this mission.
In this committee, delegates will discuss the issue at hand and develop a plan to achieve the actualization of these projects to ensure efficiency, transparency and value for money. A sustainable funding scheme will be explored as well as policy formation in order to ensure lasting impact.
About the Executive Council
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The Executive Council of the African Union (AU) is one of the central organs of the AU composed of authorities accredited by the governments of member states. It is responsible for coordinating and harmonizing policies, activities and initiatives of the AU on matters of common interest to Member States. In doing so, it monitors the implementations of policies, decisions and agreements adopted by the Assembly. Importantly, the Executive Council determines issues to be submitted to the Assembly for discussion and decision.
Topic: Strengthening Human Development through Improved Management of Natural Resources
Human development is one of the key indicators that a country has reached sustainable growth. It is therefore unfortunate that despite Africa’s endowment of natural resources that could contribute towards its human development, the Human Development Index (HDI) across Africa remains low. According to the 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations, in 2017 Nigeria produced 1,988 barrels of oil per day, yet is ranked 152 globally in terms of its HDI. On the other hand, at the end of 2014 Mauritius was producing 5,884 tonnes of fish for export, and was ranked 64 in the world in terms of its HDI.
In light of the figures above, it is crucial to note that African countries need to strategize on utilising their resources to strengthen their HDI and accordingly get closer to reaching the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Improving the standard of living of African citizens will undoubtedly have a positive effect on the economic growth of this continent, as a healthier population is in turn able to work, pay taxes and purchase goods.
Complications lie in the question of how to capitalise on our wealth of natural resources. At ALAMAU 2019, this committee will aim to discuss the possibilities inherent in exploration, investment in refinery infrastructure and firms, and production and trade, so to earn more revenue and channel those towards the development of our continent.
:Specialized Technical Committee on Education
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The Specialized Technical Committee on Education is created solely for the purpose of the African Leadership Academy Model African Union. It is not an existing committee in the African Union (AU).
This committee is simulating a specialized institution of the AU tasked with the responsibility of improving the standard of and access to quality education on the African continent. It aims to play a central role in ensuring quality, responsive and inclusive education development in Africa so as to ensure the sustainable development of human resources and intellectual capacity.
Topic: Enhancing the Realisation of Educational Outcomes for Secondary Education
Educational outcomes are crucial indicators of a nation’s level of development. Despite ongoing discussions concerning the improvement of educational systems across Africa, few tools are available to monitor whether educational systems are in fact effective. If issues regarding the quality of and access to education are to be addressed, a critical understanding is required of what the goal of education is, with respect to qualitative and quantitative values, and the degree to which these may be influenced by technological development, environmental change, social reform and other external factors.
The short- and long-term outcomes may include an individual’s level of employability, access to further education and the degree to which an individual may be able to care for himself/herself. The outcomes whereby a secondary educational system’s success should be objectively measured, however, have yet to be defined. The true purpose of education is thus perhaps more misunderstood than formerly believed.
Education should be a crucial focus area for African governments. According to the African Library Project, only 59% of Sub-Saharan Africans are literate. Additionally, Africa is predicted to be the most significant contributor to future global population growth, adding even greater pressure to educational institutions to cope with the increasing demand for quality education. Many African states have however taken significant strides toward improving the access to high-quality education for their citizens. Through the implementation of the Education Transition Fund (ETF) for example, Zimbabwe has been able to channel donor funding toward classroom materials, particularly textbooks.
It is essential that African states collaborate to develop an understanding of the planned outcomes of education across Africa. The Specialized Technical Committee on Education shall address this issue in depth at ALAMAU 2019. It will be asking questions such as, is secondary-level education in place solely to prepare individuals for tertiary-level education? How can we measure the attainment of educational outcomes?
About the New Partnership for Africa’s Development
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The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is the technical arm of the African Union. It was adopted in 2002 by the African Union to coordinate the impact of Africa’s development in the 21st century. NEPAD’s main objective is to eradicate poverty and place African countries on the path towards sustainable growth and development as individual nations and as a collective. The organization also aims to halt the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process, accelerate the empowerment of women and fully integrate Africa into the global economy.
At ALAMAU 2019, NEPAD will be focusing on strategies to foster climate resilience to improve food security for a more sustainable future.
Topic: Fostering Climate Resilience to Improve Food Security
Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges, a threat multiplier particularly with regards to developing nations. In the case of the African continent, the threats of climate change have proved to be especially alarming, with severe impacts on the agricultural sector. Climate change is closely tied to extreme weather conditions such as floods and droughts which give rise to fundamental challenges in the field of agriculture and ultimately contribute towards the aggravation of food insecurity on the continent. In light of these severe environmental and economic complications, the African Union has played an important role in ensuring African governments’ awareness of the issue of climate change and their responsiveness to its implications.
The Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP), an African Union initiative, serves as an indispensable organ to the goal of a climate-resilient agricultural sector. The program led more than fifteen African countries to integrate climate change into their National Agricultural Investment Plans (NAIPs). These plans are considered continent-wide agendas allowing the implementation of structures such as Global Agriculture and Food Security Program that aim to stimulate growth and revive agriculture.
While the development of NAIPs is at the core of CAADP, these efforts still require support from more comprehensive policy changes. With the probable decline in agricultural yields and the increase in population growth, Africa will have to raise its food production by 60% by 2050. This is particularly important to the continent’s political stability as food insecurity risks inciting episodes of famines and conflicts similar to the 2008 food riots.
The African Union is therefore expected to act urgently and strategically with regards to the implementation of environmentally comprehensive structures. At ALAMAU 2019, this committee will look into the responsibility of reviewing and updating the CAADP regional compacts and environmental investment plans. The policy changes may include the mainstreaming and implementation of adaptation strategies into the NAIPs. Progress in this area would be measured by the efficiency of the structures established by NEPAD, such as the Agriculture Climate Change Programme, the Gender Agriculture Climate Change, and the NEPAD Climate Fund.
The African Union Advisory Board on Corruption
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The African Union Advisory Board on Corruption is a specialized committee focused on tackling corruption. It aims to promote and encourage the adoption and application of anti-corruption measures on the continent. The commission is required to regularly submit reports to the Executive Council on the progress made by each State Party. It is also expected to build partnerships with the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, African civil society, governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental organisations to facilitate dialogue in the struggle against corruption and related offences.
Topic: Promoting Transparency and Accountability in the Private Sector
A number of reports have noted that corruption costs Africa hundreds of billions of dollars a year. Moreover, six of the ten countries considered most corrupt in the world are in sub-Saharan Africa, according to Transparency International. While significant attention is granted to corruption in the public sector, the way in which this issue manifests in and is connected to the private sector deserves its own focus. Among other concerns, private sector corruption contributes to market failure; it reinforces monopoly by reducing or eliminating market opportunities. Private sector actors have also allied with public sector workers to make tax-evasion easier, which is problematic as taxes are key to financing important government projects.
The implications of non-action in this regard is serious and includes a continued unfavourable atmosphere for local and international investment. Moreover, a corrupt private sector often leads to a corrupt political arena, as corporates may depend on leaders that condone or are complicit in their activities. Lastly, a corrupt private sector can lead to the release of unsafe products and medicines that can directly threaten the lives of citizens. It is therefore clear that tackling this issue would improve the efficiency of African economies. Furthermore, dealing with this matter can help Africans overcome the common assumption that businesses in this continent only flourish through bribery, which in turn could encourage African youth to trust and invest in their economies more.
Addressing this issue is not new to the AU; in fact it is an essential part of its work to support sustainable economies that function according to the rule of law. Since 2008, examples of concrete efforts have been evident through the establishment of specialized agencies in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia. The most recent effort was the 2018 thirtieth Assembly of Head of States and Governments of the AU. This meeting focused on building a sustainable path to end corrupt practices in government, business, and civil society. It is therefore essential to leverage the progress of these initiatives to ensure sustained economic growth across the continent.
At ALAMAU 2019, our primary aim will be to understand the patterns of corrupt corporates in order to point out loopholes in current policies. We will thereafter focus on cultivating anti-corruption initiatives in the private sector that will serve to bolster economic development in Africa.
About the Peace and Security Council
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The Peace and Security Council is an organ of the African Union with the fundamental mandate to ensure the promotion of peace, security and stability across the continent. As a crucial component of the African Peace and Security Architecture, the PSC is especially focused on the establishment of peace-support operations across the continent.
Topic: Strengthening Mediation for Peacemaking Efforts in Africa
Mediation is defined as an activity involving dialogue or negotiation, which is undertaken by a neutral third party in order to prevent or resolve conflict, or achieve a compromise between two or more disputing parties. Successful mediation attempts to gain the consent of the key stakeholders and does not resort to force. It is clear that mediation efforts are crucial in dealing with disputes in Africa, in order to ensure that tensions do not reach a dangerous stage. This is especially pertinent as tensions continue to rise in states such as Cameroon, where it is estimated that 160,000 people have been displaced due to violence between Anglophone sympathisers and separatists, and Francophone state enforcements.
In order to approach complex cases in the future, so as to ensure all disputing parties come to a clear resolution, it is important to note where mediation efforts have worked in the past, such as in the case of Ethiopia and Eritrea. There have also been important mediation initiatives across the continent, such as the AU Assembly of Heads of State and Government development in 2017 of FemWise-Africa, which is a network aimed at strengthening the role of African women in conflict prevention and mediation. While taking these positive examples into account, it is critical to note that some mediation efforts have in fact proved to increase tensions. It is therefore crucial to consider how we can avoid potentially harmful mediation that could serve to worsen an already fragile situation.
At ALAMAU 2019, this committee will attempt to discuss the role of mediation in strengthening peacemaking efforts in Africa. It will look at questions of policy formulation and implementation, especially related to who should take the lead in mediation efforts, and how Africa ought to get funding for mediation attempts. Moreover, we will dig into questions related to reducing bias with the third-party mediator and impartiality of the AU, for example in scenarios when an unconstitutional deposition of government has occurred.
About the Press Corps
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At ALAMAU, the Press Corps is the group of journalists, representing various news agencies, which is responsible for informing the ALAMAU community of the happenings of the conference. These will range from reporting on the debates and resolutions passed during committee sessions to the events of the conference. The Press Corps will also be responsible for conducting press conferences, and conducting interviews with members of the ALAMAU community, this includes the organizing team, delegates, advisors and guests.
Each delegate will be assigned to a news agency to simulate before the conference. Each agency will be reporting from a unique committee. Delegates are expected to produce comprehensive reports from their respective committees and they are also free to produce reports from other committees while still reporting on their assigned committee.
About the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
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The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) was founded by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in 1958 as its African branch. UNECA seeks to promote African cooperation and integration to develop the continent. Its work is organized around seven main topics including social development, macroeconomic policy, regional integration and trade, and natural resources management.
Topic: Enhancing Intracontinental Trade to Advance Economic Integration
The key to Africa’s wealth may be perceived to be rooted in external donations, however one of the strongest ways to boost its economic growth is through intracontinental trade. Africa often imports and exports the same goods, including coffee, tea, and oil. A variety of African commodities such as rubber, copper, and other metals get exported outside the continent, manufactured, and then sent back to the continent. This has contributed towards the harm of infant industrial enterprises in Africa, which are unable to compete with commodities that are cheaper and made using African raw materials.
African countries can highly benefit from trade through specialization if they allow the free movement of goods, services, labour and capital to boost productivity. At this stage, African countries have been able to build a more integrated economy on a regional level. In the East African Community for example, citizens of member states can use the East African passport to move from one country to another. The Economic Community of West African States has moved to monetary integration as the Francophone countries share a central bank. Despite these positive examples, the impact of colonialism is still present in many areas, exemplified by the fact that Anglophone West Africa is not a part of the monetary integration in West Africa.
In order to speed up the progress in this regard, in March 2018 more than forty countries signed a deal to create the African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA): an ambitious project to unite Africa at the level of commerce. The AFCFTA is expected to increase intracontinental trade to 50% of the continent’s total trade. Nevertheless, challenges remain as certain key players, including the continent’s leading economic power; Nigeria, have not yet signed the agreement. Having all African countries in the AFCFTA will create a market with $1.7 billion people and $6.7 trillion of cumulative consumer and corporate spending, which can contribute towards solving Africa’s unemployment and debt. The improvement in trade also has the potential to trickle down to the industrial sector through the abundance of resources that would be available at a lower price. Additionally, this could lead to an increase in salaries, thus reducing poverty rates.
In this committee, we will discuss the ways in which we can leverage the progress that has been made thus far as well as the challenges that stand in the way of economic integration in the continent. In doing so, we will focus on a variety of factors, from infrastructure to tariffs, in order to ensure that the positive benefits of the AFCFTA come to fruition.
About The Social Affairs and Health Committee
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The Social Affairs and Health committee was established under article 11 of The Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC) as a cluster committee. Along with nine other committees, it formulates opinions and provides input into AU policies and programs. This committee is therefore well equipped to deal with issues related to maternal healthcare.
Topic: Addressing Challenges with Maternal Healthcare in Africa
Aspiration 1 of the African Union’s Agenda 2063 aspires for African people to “have a high standard of living, quality of life, sound health and well-being”. The extremely high rates of maternal mortality in this continent, referring to the death of women during or after pregnancy or childbirth, clearly stand in the way of achieving this aspiration. Over and above the clear ethical obligation towards improving the lives of women across Africa, addressing maternal mortality poses many benefits to countries as a whole, as it ensures that women can continue to contribute to the economic progress of their families and their countries. Furthermore, it ensures that newly born babies have access to necessary nutrition, for example through breast feeding.
It is undoubtedly crucial to address the failure in the healthcare system in Africa, which has been unable to cope with medical challenges facing maternal healthcare ranging from haemorrhage and obstructed labour to high blood pressure. Underlying areas of concern also need to be addressed, including those related to legal, cultural and socio-economic factors such as unsafe abortions and the preference towards unskilled traditional birth attendants over trained medical practitioners.
In countries such as Rwanda, strategies including the ‘RapidSMS’ communication system have helped trained Community Health Workers (CHWs) guide pregnant women through pre and post-natal care practices. By reminding pregnant women of their clinic appointments for example, medical practitioners can adequately monitor their pregnancies and reduce complications. Furthermore, these CHWs provide contraceptives to families, which encourage family planning. These strategies among others have significantly contributed towards the reduction of maternal mortality rates in Rwanda, making it on track towards the Millennium Development Goals.
This Committee will be tasked with discussing how Africa can leverage the kind of progress that countries such as Rwanda have made. Questions related to the establishment of a system for health workers will be discussed, as well as the complicated socio-economic and cultural factors that need to be taken into account. Moreover, as the World Health Organization indicates that particular attention should be paid to maternal mortality in rural areas, there will be sustained focus on inadequate access to antenatal centres in rural areas, and the high cost of services provided by these centres.